Circuits

All about circuits and hardware.

How to Transform Raw Materials into a PCB

How to Transform Raw Materials into a PCB: A Step-by-Step Guide

48 PCB circuit boards are integral to virtually all electronic products, from large-scale items like airplanes and rockets to smaller gadgets like headphones and watches. Hardware engineers deal with PCBs and PCB design daily. But what exactly is the process for a PCB to transform from raw materials into the design outlined in our files? …

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AI Chip

FPGA, ASIC, GPU: Who Is the Most Suitable AI Chip?

314 ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) GPUs have strong parallel computing capabilities, but they also have drawbacks such as high power consumption, large size, and high cost. Entering the 21st century, the demand for computing power has shown two significant trends: first, the usage scenarios for computing power began to diversify; second, users’ requirements for …

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Why are Chips Square, but Wafers Round

Why are Chips Square, but Wafers Round?

54 In popular perception, a wafer is a thin, round piece of high-purity silicon crystal. Various electronic circuit elements can be fabricated on this high-purity silicon crystal, turning it into an integrated circuit product with specific electrical functions. Numerous components are neatly arranged on a single crystal silicon material, all square and orderly. Hence, in …

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MOSFET-vs-IGBT

MOSFET vs IGBT for Power Electronics: A Comprehensive Comparison

160 Power electronics play a central role in many areas of modern technology. Not only is it a key technology for powering countless devices in everyday life, such as motor drive systems and uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), but it is also a cornerstone for advancing renewable energy technologies, such as solar inverters. By efficiently converting …

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An in-depth understanding of DMA: How does DMA alleviate the CPU’s workload?

83 What is DMA? DMA, or Direct Memory Access, is a mechanism used in computer systems to achieve high-speed data transfer. DMA allows peripherals to directly access data stored in main memory without the need for the processor to be involved in every transfer, resulting in faster data transfer speed, reduced processor load, and decreased …

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RS232 and RS485

What is the difference between RS232 and RS485?

63 In embedded systems, many communication interfaces/protocols are frequently used, such as RS232, RS485, lightweight TCP/IP protocol, LoRa, Zigbee, etc. This article will share with you the differences between the two most commonly used interfaces in embedded development, RS232, and RS485. Introduction to RS232 and RS485 RS232 is a standard for serial communication developed jointly …

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What is Watchdog Timer and How to Use it for Microcontrollers

73 If a microcontroller freezes during operation, it will not respond to any actions.  The only solution is to power off the device and restart it to resume normal operation. To solve the problem of microcontroller freezing, designers have developed a module called the watchdog timer. With the watchdog timer, microcontrollers are less likely to …

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